Qt文档阅读笔记-DTLS server解析

此篇博文展示了如何创建一个简单的DTLS服务端:

注意:这个DTLS服务端需要和DTLS客户端一起跑,才能看出效果。

服务端实现了DtlsServer类,这个类使用了QUdpSocket,QDtlsClientVerifier,QDtls使用这些类用于和客户端的连接,完成握手及数据加密传输与读取。

  class DtlsServer : public QObject
  {
      Q_OBJECT

  public:
      DtlsServer();
      ~DtlsServer();

      bool listen(const QHostAddress &address, quint16 port);
      bool isListening() const;
      void close();

  signals:
      void errorMessage(const QString &message);
      void warningMessage(const QString &message);
      void infoMessage(const QString &message);

      void datagramReceived(const QString &peerInfo, const QByteArray &cipherText,
                            const QByteArray &plainText);

  private slots:
      void readyRead();
      void pskRequired(QSslPreSharedKeyAuthenticator *auth);

  private:
      void handleNewConnection(const QHostAddress &peerAddress, quint16 peerPort,
                               const QByteArray &clientHello);

      void doHandshake(QDtls *newConnection, const QByteArray &clientHello);
      void decryptDatagram(QDtls *connection, const QByteArray &clientMessage);
      void shutdown();

      bool listening = false;
      QUdpSocket serverSocket;

      QSslConfiguration serverConfiguration;
      QDtlsClientVerifier cookieSender;
      std::vector<std::unique_ptr<QDtls>> knownClients;

      Q_DISABLE_COPY(DtlsServer)
  };

构造函数中QUdpSocket::readyRead()信号连接了readyRead()槽,用于获取客户端的数据报,最简单的设置了DTLS的配置:

  DtlsServer::DtlsServer()
  {
      connect(&serverSocket, &QAbstractSocket::readyRead, this, &DtlsServer::readyRead);

      serverConfiguration = QSslConfiguration::defaultDtlsConfiguration();
      serverConfiguration.setPreSharedKeyIdentityHint("Qt DTLS example server");
      serverConfiguration.setPeerVerifyMode(QSslSocket::VerifyNone);
  }

注意:服务端未使用证书,仅仅是依赖共享密钥(PSK)握手。

listen()与QUdpSocket进行了捆绑:

  bool DtlsServer::listen(const QHostAddress &address, quint16 port)
  {
      if (address != serverSocket.localAddress() || port != serverSocket.localPort()) {
          shutdown();
          listening = serverSocket.bind(address, port);
          if (!listening)
              emit errorMessage(serverSocket.errorString());
      } else {
          listening = true;
      }

      return listening;
  }

readyRead()槽函数获取客户端数据报:

      ...
  const qint64 bytesToRead = serverSocket.pendingDatagramSize();
  if (bytesToRead <= 0) {
      emit warningMessage(tr("A spurious read notification"));
      return;
  }

  QByteArray dgram(bytesToRead, Qt::Uninitialized);
  QHostAddress peerAddress;
  quint16 peerPort = 0;
  const qint64 bytesRead = serverSocket.readDatagram(dgram.data(), dgram.size(),
                                                     &peerAddress, &peerPort);
  if (bytesRead <= 0) {
      emit warningMessage(tr("Failed to read a datagram: ") + serverSocket.errorString());
      return;
  }

  dgram.resize(bytesRead);
      ...

随后获取客户端的IP和端口,服务端发送数据报给客户端:

      ...
  if (peerAddress.isNull() || !peerPort) {
      emit warningMessage(tr("Failed to extract peer info (address, port)"));
      return;
  }

  const auto client = std::find_if(knownClients.begin(), knownClients.end(),
                                   [&](const std::unique_ptr<QDtls> &connection){
      return connection->peerAddress() == peerAddress
             && connection->peerPort() == peerPort;
  });
      ...

如果是新的客户端,未知地址和端口,客户端会发送ClientHello消息,随后服务端回HelloVerifyRequest这个要先处理下:

      ...
  if (client == knownClients.end())
      return handleNewConnection(peerAddress, peerPort, dgram);
      ...

如果是连上的已知的客户端,服务端会进行解密:

      ...
  if ((*client)->isConnectionEncrypted()) {
      decryptDatagram(client->get(), dgram);
      if ((*client)->dtlsError() == QDtlsError::RemoteClosedConnectionError)
          knownClients.erase(client);
      return;
  }
      ...

以及进行握手:

      ...
  doHandshake(client->get(), dgram);
      ...

handleNewConnect()对客户端进行认证,以及发送HelloVerifyRequest:

  void DtlsServer::handleNewConnection(const QHostAddress &peerAddress,
                                       quint16 peerPort, const QByteArray &clientHello)
  {
      if (!listening)
          return;

      const QString peerInfo = peer_info(peerAddress, peerPort);
      if (cookieSender.verifyClient(&serverSocket, clientHello, peerAddress, peerPort)) {
          emit infoMessage(peerInfo + tr(": verified, starting a handshake"));
      ...

如果服务端认为新来的客户端可达,那个服务端会创建一个Qtls的配置,然后进行握手:

      ...
      std::unique_ptr<QDtls> newConnection{new QDtls{QSslSocket::SslServerMode}};
      newConnection->setDtlsConfiguration(serverConfiguration);
      newConnection->setPeer(peerAddress, peerPort);
      newConnection->connect(newConnection.get(), &QDtls::pskRequired,
                             this, &DtlsServer::pskRequired);
      knownClients.push_back(std::move(newConnection));
      doHandshake(knownClients.back().get(), clientHello);
      ...

关于握手的代码在doHandshake()中

  void DtlsServer::doHandshake(QDtls *newConnection, const QByteArray &clientHello)
  {
      const bool result = newConnection->doHandshake(&serverSocket, clientHello);
      if (!result) {
          emit errorMessage(newConnection->dtlsErrorString());
          return;
      }

      const QString peerInfo = peer_info(newConnection->peerAddress(),
                                         newConnection->peerPort());
      switch (newConnection->handshakeState()) {
      case QDtls::HandshakeInProgress:
          emit infoMessage(peerInfo + tr(": handshake is in progress ..."));
          break;
      case QDtls::HandshakeComplete:
          emit infoMessage(tr("Connection with %1 encrypted. %2")
                           .arg(peerInfo, connection_info(newConnection)));
          break;
      default:
          Q_UNREACHABLE();
      }
  }

在握手中,QDtls::pskRequired()信号关联到pskRequired()槽函数中,并且设置了PSK:

  void DtlsServer::pskRequired(QSslPreSharedKeyAuthenticator *auth)
  {
      Q_ASSERT(auth);

      emit infoMessage(tr("PSK callback, received a client's identity: '%1'")
                       .arg(QString::fromLatin1(auth->identity())));
      auth->setPreSharedKey(QByteArrayLiteral("\x1a\x2b\x3c\x4d\x5e\x6f"));
  }

在握手完成后,就可以进行数据的加密发送和响应了:

  void DtlsServer::decryptDatagram(QDtls *connection, const QByteArray &clientMessage)
  {
      Q_ASSERT(connection->isConnectionEncrypted());

      const QString peerInfo = peer_info(connection->peerAddress(), connection->peerPort());
      const QByteArray dgram = connection->decryptDatagram(&serverSocket, clientMessage);
      if (dgram.size()) {
          emit datagramReceived(peerInfo, clientMessage, dgram);
          connection->writeDatagramEncrypted(&serverSocket, tr("to %1: ACK").arg(peerInfo).toLatin1());
      } else if (connection->dtlsError() == QDtlsError::NoError) {
          emit warningMessage(peerInfo + ": " + tr("0 byte dgram, could be a re-connect attempt?"));
      } else {
          emit errorMessage(peerInfo + ": " + connection->dtlsErrorString());
      }
  }

服务端关闭DTLS服务调用QDtls::shutdown()

  void DtlsServer::shutdown()
  {
      for (const auto &connection : qExchange(knownClients, {}))
          connection->shutdown(&serverSocket);

      serverSocket.close();
  }

下面是出现问题或警告时的代码:

  const QString colorizer(QStringLiteral("<font color=\"%1\">%2</font><br>"));

  void MainWindow::addErrorMessage(const QString &message)
  {
      ui->serverInfo->insertHtml(colorizer.arg(QStringLiteral("Crimson"), message));
  }

  void MainWindow::addWarningMessage(const QString &message)
  {
      ui->serverInfo->insertHtml(colorizer.arg(QStringLiteral("DarkOrange"), message));
  }

  void MainWindow::addInfoMessage(const QString &message)
  {
      ui->serverInfo->insertHtml(colorizer.arg(QStringLiteral("DarkBlue"), message));
  }

  void MainWindow::addClientMessage(const QString &peerInfo, const QByteArray &datagram,
                                    const QByteArray &plainText)
  {
      static const QString messageColor = QStringLiteral("DarkMagenta");
      static const QString formatter = QStringLiteral("<br>---------------"
                                                      "<br>A message from %1"
                                                      "<br>DTLS datagram:<br> %2"
                                                      "<br>As plain text:<br> %3");

      const QString html = formatter.arg(peerInfo, QString::fromUtf8(datagram.toHex(' ')),
                                         QString::fromUtf8(plainText));
      ui->messages->insertHtml(colorizer.arg(messageColor, html));
  }

 

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